EMT Study Area

The “EMT study area” and EMT Study Guide were created for EMTs to prepare for the National Registry exam. Take a look around! Anything and everything located within this site is HERE.. for a reason! If you want to pass NREMT exam. Know this material!
More EMT Study Guides  can be found and incorporated all throughout Munden Interactive, so if you purchase the exams you will receive even more material to help you pass the NREMT test.


Lung Sounds

You better know the causes of wheezes.

Allergic Reaction
Anaphylactic Reaction
Burns Heat, smoke, chemical and more..

Stridor is caused by a number of things, but you will most likely see it in the form of:

Upper airway swelling

Rhonchi are continuous low pitched, rattling lung sounds that often resemble snoring. Obstruction or secretions in larger airways are frequent causes of rhonchi. They can be heard in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, or cystic fibrosis. Rhonchi usually clear after coughing.

Coarse crackles are discontinuous, brief, popping lung sounds. Compared to fine crackles they are louder, lower in pitch and last longer. They have also been described as a bubbling sound. You can simulate this sound by rolling strands of hair between your fingers near your ear.

Fine crackles are brief, discontinuous, popping lung sounds that are high-pitched. Fine crackles are also similar to the sound of wood burning in a fireplace, or hook and loop fasteners being pulled apart or cellophane being crumpled.

Crackles, previously termed rales, can be heard in both phases of respiration. Early inspiratory and expiratory crackles are the hallmark of chronic bronchitis. Late inspiratory crackles may mean pneumonia, CHF, or atelectasis.

These can be caused by COPD, and or your patient not being able to get a deep breath inward. For test taking purposes; I would take a look at my test scenario and assume this might even be a pneumothorax if the patient had recently undergone a trauma. If not, I would be thinking that there is an underlying disease process that is cause this weak, and diminished sound. It may sound clear in your stethoscope, but very weak and hard to make out

When taking your National Registry exam, and you hear unequal breath sounds (especially in the trauma situation) I want you to think that this is a pneumothorax. If you are a paramedic; you can also consider a dislodged endotracheal tube, or perhaps your tube is in the esophagus? Does your patient need to be suctioned? Especially when bagging your patient become difficult!

Pleural rubs are discontinuous or continuous, creaking or grating sounds. The sound has been described as similar to walking on fresh snow or a leather-on-leather type of sound. Coughing will not alter the sound. They are produced because two inflamed surfaces are sliding by one another, such as in pleurisy.

During auscultation, pleural rubs can usually be localized to a particular place on the chest wall. They also come and go.

Because these sounds occur whenever the patient’s chest wall moves, they appear on inspiration and expiration. Pleural rubs stop when the patient holds her breath. If the rubbing sound continues while the patient holds a breath, it may be a pericardial friction rub.

Lung Sounds